SpringBoot如何设置动态定时任务

之前写过文章记录怎么在SpringBoot项目中简单使用定时任务,不过由于要借助cron表达式且都提前定义好放在配置文件里,不能在项目运行中动态修改任务执行时间,实在不太灵活。

经过网上搜索学习后,特此记录如何在SpringBoot项目中实现动态定时任务。

因为只是一个demo,所以只引入了需要的依赖:

<dependencies>
         <dependency>
             <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
             <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
         </dependency>
    
         <dependency>
             <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
             <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-log4j2</artifactId>
             <optional>true</optional>
         </dependency>
    
         <!-- spring boot 2.3版本后,如果需要使用校验,需手动导入validation包-->
         <dependency>
             <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
             <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-validation</artifactId>
         </dependency>
    
         <dependency>
             <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
             <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
             <optional>true</optional>
         </dependency>
     </dependencies>

启动类:

package com.wl.demo;
    
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.scheduling.annotation.EnableScheduling;
    
/**
     * @author wl
     * @date 2022/3/22
     */
@EnableScheduling
@SpringBootApplication
public class DemoApplication {
    
     public static void main(String[] args) {
         SpringApplication.run(DemoApplication.class, args);
         System.out.println("(*^▽^*)启动成功!!!(〃'▽'〃)");
     }
}

配置文件application.yml,只定义了服务端口:

server:
     port: 8089

定时任务执行时间配置文件:task-config.ini:

printTime.cron=0/10 * * * * ?

定时任务执行类:

package com.wl.demo.task;
    
import lombok.Data;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.PropertySource;
import org.springframework.scheduling.Trigger;
import org.springframework.scheduling.TriggerContext;
import org.springframework.scheduling.annotation.SchedulingConfigurer;
import org.springframework.scheduling.config.ScheduledTaskRegistrar;
import org.springframework.scheduling.support.CronTrigger;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
    
import java.time.LocalDateTime;
import java.util.Date;
    
/**
     * 定时任务
     * @author wl
     * @date 2022/3/22
     */
@Data
@Slf4j
@Component
@PropertySource("classpath:/task-config.ini")
public class ScheduleTask implements SchedulingConfigurer {
    
     @Value("${printTime.cron}")
     private String cron;
    
     @Override
     public void configureTasks(ScheduledTaskRegistrar taskRegistrar) {
         // 动态使用cron表达式设置循环间隔
         taskRegistrar.addTriggerTask(new Runnable() {
             @Override
             public void run() {
                 log.info("Current time: {}", LocalDateTime.now());
             }
         }, new Trigger() {
             @Override
             public Date nextExecutionTime(TriggerContext triggerContext) {
                 // 使用CronTrigger触发器,可动态修改cron表达式来操作循环规则
                 CronTrigger cronTrigger = new CronTrigger(cron);
                 Date nextExecutionTime = cronTrigger.nextExecutionTime(triggerContext);
                 return nextExecutionTime;
             }
         });
     }
}

编写一个接口,使得可以通过调用接口动态修改该定时任务的执行时间:

package com.wl.demo.controller;
    
import com.wl.demo.task.ScheduleTask;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
    
/**
     * @author wl
     * @date 2022/3/22
     */
@Slf4j
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/test")
public class TestController {
    
     private final ScheduleTask scheduleTask;
    
     @Autowired
     public TestController(ScheduleTask scheduleTask) {
         this.scheduleTask = scheduleTask;
     }
    
     @GetMapping("/updateCron")
     public String updateCron(String cron) {
         log.info("new cron :{}", cron);
         scheduleTask.setCron(cron);
         return "ok";
     }
}

启动项目,可以看到任务每10秒执行一次:

SpringBoot设置动态定时任务的方法详解
访问接口,传入请求参数cron表达式,将定时任务修改为15秒执行一次:

SpringBoot设置动态定时任务的方法详解
可以看到任务变成了15秒执行一次

SpringBoot设置动态定时任务的方法详解
除了上面的借助cron表达式的方法,还有另一种触发器,区别于CronTrigger触发器,该触发器可随意设置循环间隔时间,不像cron表达式只能定义小于等于间隔59秒。

package com.wl.demo.task;
    
import lombok.Data;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Value;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.PropertySource;
import org.springframework.scheduling.Trigger;
import org.springframework.scheduling.TriggerContext;
import org.springframework.scheduling.annotation.SchedulingConfigurer;
import org.springframework.scheduling.config.ScheduledTaskRegistrar;
import org.springframework.scheduling.support.CronTrigger;
import org.springframework.scheduling.support.PeriodicTrigger;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;
    
import java.time.LocalDateTime;
import java.util.Date;
    
/**
     * 定时任务
     * @author wl
     * @date 2022/3/22
     */
@Data
@Slf4j
@Component
@PropertySource("classpath:/task-config.ini")
public class ScheduleTask implements SchedulingConfigurer {
    
     @Value("${printTime.cron}")
     private String cron;
    
     private Long timer = 10000L;
    
     @Override
     public void configureTasks(ScheduledTaskRegistrar taskRegistrar) {
         // 动态使用cron表达式设置循环间隔
         taskRegistrar.addTriggerTask(new Runnable() {
             @Override
             public void run() {
                 log.info("Current time: {}", LocalDateTime.now());
             }
         }, new Trigger() {
             @Override
             public Date nextExecutionTime(TriggerContext triggerContext) {
                 // 使用CronTrigger触发器,可动态修改cron表达式来操作循环规则
// CronTrigger cronTrigger = new CronTrigger(cron);
// Date nextExecutionTime = cronTrigger.nextExecutionTime(triggerContext);
    
                 // 使用不同的触发器,为设置循环时间的关键,区别于CronTrigger触发器,该触发器可随意设置循环间隔时间,单位为毫秒
                 PeriodicTrigger periodicTrigger = new PeriodicTrigger(timer);
                 Date nextExecutionTime = periodicTrigger.nextExecutionTime(triggerContext);
                 return nextExecutionTime;
             }
         });
     }
}

增加一个修改时间的接口:

package com.wl.demo.controller;
    
import com.wl.demo.task.ScheduleTask;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
    
/**
     * @author wl
     * @date 2022/3/22
     */
@Slf4j
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/test")
public class TestController {
    
     private final ScheduleTask scheduleTask;
    
     @Autowired
     public TestController(ScheduleTask scheduleTask) {
         this.scheduleTask = scheduleTask;
     }
    
     @GetMapping("/updateCron")
     public String updateCron(String cron) {
         log.info("new cron :{}", cron);
         scheduleTask.setCron(cron);
         return "ok";
     }
    
     @GetMapping("/updateTimer")
     public String updateTimer(Long timer) {
         log.info("new timer :{}", timer);
         scheduleTask.setTimer(timer);
         return "ok";
     }
}

测试结果:

SpringBoot设置动态定时任务的方法详解

文档下载:SpringBoot如何设置动态定时任务.doc文档

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